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Jacques-Nicolas Bellin: Carte de Detroit de Gibraltar

Map: SP2162
Cartographer: Jacques-Nicolas Bellin
Title: Carte de Detroit de Gibraltar
Date: 1764
Published: Paris
Width: 7 inches / 18 cm
Height: 9 inches / 23 cm
Map ref: SP2162
Small chart of the Straits of Gibraltar, one of most famous sea straits in the world.

Jacques-Nicolas Bellin was one of the greatest 18th century map makers. He specialised in hydrography and was appointed to the French Hydrographic office at the young age of 18 in 1721. Twenty years later he was named the first “Ingenieur de la Marine” for the “Depot des Cartes et Plans de la Marine” as well as Hydrographer to Louis XV of France. Over a fifty year career, he published a multitude of important maps often from first hand sources provided by naval officers, merchants and government sources. His level of access was extraordinary. As well as publishing his own atlases, he was a contributor to many seminal French works on exploration, including Abbee Raynal’s “Histoire des Deux Indes”, Abbee Prevost’s “Histoire Generale des Voyages” and Pierre de Charlevoix’s “Histoire et Description Generale de la Nouvelle France”.

In 1762, Bellin decided to publish one of his most popular and accessible works: “Le Petit Atlas Maritime”. The work came out in 1764 in five volumes and proved extremely popular. Many of the maps were reduced versions which Bellin had either contributed or published previously. However, there are some notable exceptions, such as his famous map of Manhattan, which was sourced from a manuscript map by J.B.L. Franquelin drawn in 1693. The five volumes usually contain between 575 and 590 maps with variations noted between individual examples. As the preparation took only two years, it is very likely that Bellin had a majority of these copper plates already available. The initial financial support for the atlas was from Etienne-Francois, Duc de Choiseul, a highly placed French politician who was credited for strengthening both the army and navy. Due to its accessibility, he perceived the ”Petit Atlas Maritime” as a method of publicising both the work of the “Depot de la Marine” and the Navy to the general public. Bellin includes a long dedication to Choiseul on the front of each volume.

For collectors today, the work presents one of the widest selection of extremely desirable smaller maps. They provide clear, concise and attractive geographical records of some of the most inaccessible and exotic areas of the world in the mid-18th century. Bellin was part of a group called “Les Philosophes”, the French counterpart to the pioneers of the English Age of Reason and his maps are a lasting legacy from the Age of French Enlightenment.

Marking the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean, the Straits of Gibraltar is one of the busiest water ways in the world. It was known as the Pillars of Hercules in antiquity and by that name it featured in many myths and legends. This map is oriented to show north to the left and shows the Portuguese and Spanish coastline from Cape Trafalgar to the Rock of Gibraltar and on the North African side, Cape Spartel in Morocco to Ceuta, an autonomous Spanish city on the African coast. The source of this map would have been Bellin’s large chart of the same area produced for the French Hydrographic Office.

Original colour. [SP2162]